Terrain Generation Research

Today’s post will just be a quick collection of links to interesting articles on generating and creating synthetic terrains. My goal is to create interesting and reasonably plausible designed landscapes.

Terrainosaurus: Realistic Terrain Synthesis Using Genetic Algorithms – Genetic synthesis of a terrain based on user-entered constraints and DEM heightfield patches. Seems to be based more on assigning qualitative regions than a ridges and valleys approach.

Interactive GPU-based Procedural Heightfield Brushes – The most basic operations seem to be possible to approximate by painting onto alpha maps of layers generated using appropriate(preferably fairly homogeneous) procedural noise functions. I’d like to try adapting the erosive noise algorithm to planetGenesis(I’d recommend compiling from source. The latest available release is ancient). The one thing I don’t think I can approximate with a noise layer is the directional noise, stretched in a direction based on the direction of the stroke. I’d really like to see that implemented!

River and Coastal Action in Automatic Terrain Generation – There’s quite a lot here. First of all, it has an interesting user-guided system for placing geological features to create a terrain. These features are mountain ranges, valleys, canyons, buttes, cliffs and what it calls periodic hills. Lakes are generated automatically, based on basins in the resulting heightfield. Once the initial terrain is generated, it uses a very simplified model to place precipitation which guides the placement of river seeds. From these, it can generate rivers with varying width, meanders in flatter areas and a delta at the mouth. On the sea coast, this system can generate plausible beaches and headland cliffs. Overall pretty nice, although the terrains are detailed using the somewhat artifacty midpoint subdivision algorithm.

Modeling of ecosystems as a data source for real-time terrain rendering – An ecotope model for placing vegetation. Depending on the needed level of detail, this can do anything from shading for aerial or satellite photography to guiding actual placement of trees, bushes and ground cover shading on closer pictures. It also looks like it could be adapted to creating fairly simple global habitat modeling.

Modeling Landscapes With Ridges and Rivers: A Bottom-up Approach – The described model seems to be a fully automated system for generating a random terrain, but it looks like the ridges-and-valleys approach could be adapted to generate a terrain based on user-generated river and ridge networks. Actually, it looks like a skeleton DEM can be used to guide the process…

Fast, Realistic Terrain Synthesis – Promising. I haven’t gotten a real good look at it, but it looks like a detailed survey of automated patch-based terrain generation.

I hope this will prove useful or at least interesting. Thank you for your attention,
The Astrographer

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Interlude: tectonics.js

The other day while testing tectonics.js in the background, I found a result I rather liked. I was intending to use tectonics.js to create the basic continental arrangement for my habitable planet orbiting 40 Eridani as part of an incredibly long project I’m working on. I found out in the process that the latest version of tectonics.js no longer works on my computer.

Apple stopped coming out with updates for Safari compatible with my computer at least one age ago, so apparently some of the newer features of javascript aren’t implemented. I have a fairly recent version of Firefox, but it hates my GPU. Chrome never ran tectonics.js on my computer, so that was right out. Thus, I had to dig through the git registry for rtectonics.js that worked on my computer and had the Texture projection feature. Took awhile, but I found a version that worked fine. To test the quality of its rendering, I set it on a very slow increment rate(theoretically about 0.005 MYr/sec). The slower the render speed, usually, the better the look of the render. I think I may have reached a point of diminishing returns:/.

The result I found, when I checked it in the morning was rather interesting. I don’t know if I will use it for the 40 Eridani project, but I am keeping it for later use.

The Satellite View shader of tectonics.js gives a good idea of the rough biome of regions. It's sensitive to temperature, precipitation and altitude.

The Satellite View shader of tectonics.js gives a good idea of the rough biome of regions. It’s sensitive to temperature, precipitation and altitude.

I did think I would show it off, here, though. I can go show the images I have generated, and go over the features that appealed to me particularly.

The first thing that I noticed about this map was that it vaguely reminded me of the map of Tschai from the Planet of Adventure books by Jack Vance.

In retrospect, the similarity was only very vague.

In retrospect, the similarity was only very vague.

You have to squint really hard to see the similarity. It also probably wouldn’t hurt to have a nut or two loose in your brain case like me!

Kotan is a bit soft pedaled. Kislovan and Haulk are a bit hulking. Charchan is kind of there(…). That island in the Draschade Ocean seems to have wandered a bit eastward, or maybe Vord fell to the south.

Okay. It’s not that close a resemblance, but it’s about as good as you could hope to come up at random.

The image marked up with approximations of features from Tschai. Some are more fanciful than others…

The image marked up with approximations of features from Tschai. Some are more fanciful than others…

Anyway, with a similar exercise of the imagination, you could see bits of Earth in this map as well. This is a bit less literal than my effort with Tschai, although squinting and loose fasteners are similarly useful.

That island in the south east quadrant brings New Zealand to my mind. Isolated, temperate and perhaps a touch exotic. The temperate arc in the north east quarter looks like it could have an interesting Europe-like feel to it. Along the coast you go from the edge of a desert to something vaguely like Iberia. Further up the arch, you pass through regions similar to

If you thought Tschai was forced, take a gander at this attempt to place bits of an Earth map on the image.

If you thought Tschai was forced, take a gander at this attempt to place bits of an Earth map on the image.

France and perhaps Germany. Across a small gulf, you find Scandinavia or maybe a more continental Britain. Inland, to the north and west, you segue into possible steppelands, like Russia. If you head south to the upside-down tee-shaped peninsula, you find desert and tropical jungles like a diminutive Africa of sorts. This arrangement, with its pocket-sized tropical regions makes me think even more strongly of the World of Greyhawk. As you can see, the more specific we get, the more forced the comparisons become. This is all for the good. If we wanted to play on Earth, there are plenty of very good maps of that planet.

I would also want to add further points of oddness to the world as I detailed it. Strange flora and fauna. Unearthly environments. Earth itself has plenty of those, why shouldn’t this world?

Anyway, I thought this might be an interesting exercise in trying to visualize a world by looking at a fairly random map. “Fairly” random, because this is based on an attempt to model the tectonic processes that might be found in a real planet similar to Earth.

For added enjoyment. Hopefully. I’ve added some additional generated maps.

This is the "Bedrock" shader. For purposes of visualizing elevations, I think it gives a better feel for the variation in lower and flatter areas. Sadly, I wasn't able to save an elevation map before Safari crashed on me. My computer makes me sad… LOL

This is the “Bedrock” shader. For purposes of visualizing elevations, I think it gives a better feel for the variation in lower and flatter areas. Sadly, I wasn’t able to save an elevation map before Safari crashed on me. My computer makes me sad… LOL

This is the vegetation shader. It also gives a good idea of the ratio of evaporation to precipitation. Because insolation is an altogether positive effect in the algorithm used to generate this, that breaks down in the upper latitudes. One can figure on more snowfall in the upper reaches…

This is the vegetation shader. It also gives a good idea of the ratio of evaporation to precipitation. Because insolation is an altogether positive effect in the algorithm used to generate this, that breaks down in the upper latitudes. One can figure on more snowfall in the upper reaches…

Comments and suggestions are always welcome. Criticisms might be appreciated…

Thank you for your attention.
The Astrographer

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WIP – UNSEO Rax

First Contact between humans and the Rax occurred at a planet orbiting one of the stars of 40 Eridani. This planet would later become a mixed Rax/human colony world. The Rax were the first sapient alien species contacted who were roughly on par with human technology.

For the same size, mass and power requirement, Rax hyperdrives were slightly slower at the time than their human equivalent. Sublight warp drives manufactured by the Rax were a bit faster than their human equivalents, all else being equal. Their material science was a bit superior, so their ships were generally either lighter or tougher than equivalent human craft. Due to the social psychology of the Rax, their ships tend to be small, often suitable to be run by a lone Rax or a small immediate family group.

Rax medical technology was also about on par with humans. At the time of contact, both humans and Rax could expect a healthy lifespan of about 200 years, well in excess of the natural longevity of either species. At the time of contact, Rax had better implanted nanomedichines than humans, but human autodocs were somewhat superior. For historical reasons, Rax are generally more comfortable with cerebrocybernetic implants. The Zombie Wars would serve to turn off humans to such things for decades.

The two species have shared technology and scientific research freely since they made contact, so human and Rax technology can be considered more or less identical at this point.

In appearance, a Rax is more than a little similar to a cross between a centaur and a gigantic scorpion. Rather than a stinger, the Rax’s tail ends in a large, strong claw, with a flattened gripping surface similar to pliers. A Rax can quite readily lift its own moderately encumbered body with the strength of its tail. This is frequently used along with the smaller gripping claws on its six feet to aid in climbing. They are not arboreal, but they are perfectly comfortable climbing into trees in pursuit of prey. This claw has limited capability as a fine manipulator, but is perfectly well suited to grabbing and holding heavy objects. The Rax uses six of its limbs purely as ambulatory legs. These are, as was mentioned earlier, tipped with gripping claws useful both for traction on the ground as well as for climbing. Two arms on the slightly reared up front part of the body are weaker than human arms, but the four-fingered hands are capable of finer manipulation.

Above the shoulders, on a long, very mobile neck, the Rax has a large head. At the front of the head are a beaked mouth below a pair of small, beady eyes, suited for close very fine observation not very far beyond the reach of the arms. These eyes do not have significant color discrimination. Above these eyes are a pair of very large eyes with very fine color discrimination over a fairly wide range of light frequencies from near infrared to just short of violet. These aren’t capable of highly detailed in-close vision but for distance vision they have only slightly less acuity than human vision. They are very good at picking out movement and small differences in color. Four, small, not particularly acute eyes ring the upper part of the head. Unlike the four eyes, on the front of the head, these eyes are not capable of binocular depth perception, but they provide full 360º visual coverage and are very sensitive to motion. These crown eyes do not have any discrimination of hues, but they are very sensitive in very low light levels and can see a range of frequencies from thermal infrared to just short of orange. Two sets of whiskers, coming out of the head to either side near the front set of eyes serve as very sensitive tactile sensors and give an acute, but non-directional sense of smell. Another two clusters of whiskers, at either corner of the beak, give a sense of taste and a more directional sense of smell.

Several attempts at depicting the appearance of a Rax. They have helped me to solid up my sense of what my scorpion-centaurs look like, but my artistic skills are really not up to the task. Hey! It was very courageous of me to show this in a public context.

Several attempts at depicting the appearance of a Rax. They have helped me to solid up my sense of what my scorpion-centaurs look like, but my artistic skills are really not up to the task. Hey! It was very courageous of me to show this in a public context! LOL

A representation of the Rax that my twelve-year-old son did on commission. He's a better artist than me, but it wasn't exactly what I was looking for either. To the degree I knew what I was looking for…

A representation of the Rax that my twelve-year-old son did on commission. He’s a better artist than me, but it wasn’t exactly what I was looking for either. To the degree I knew what I was looking for…

A little something from http://www.etsonly.com/images/races/equus/gallery/manscorpion.png. The upper body is far too human, the arms should end in functional hands, rather than claws, and the tail should end in a flattened gripping claw rather than a stinger, but the artistry is better than I can do, and I kind of like the overall look.

A little something from http://www.etsonly.com/images/races/equus/gallery/manscorpion.png. The upper body is far too human, the arms should end in functional hands, rather than claws, and the tail should end in a flattened gripping claw rather than a stinger, but the artistry is better than I can do, and I kind of like the overall look.

These are, all of them, very different pictures, but if you squint a little and use your imagination to triangulate off of all of these, you should get a decent idea of what a Rax would look like. Dear Dogs, I wish I was a better artist!

Now that I’ve made an attempt, through words and images, to depict the physical appearance of a Rax, let’s go on to a bit about their psychology and society.

Psychologically, the Rax evolved from a species of solitary hunters. Social behavior is a bit of a recent innovation in the evolution of the Rax, and they are generally somewhat uncomfortable with large crowds. Rax cities are, thus, generally small, spread out, and surrounded and intercalated with lots of dense greenspaces. Rax don’t have kitchens or restaurants as they don’t cook their food. When hungry, Rax living in urban areas will head out into the surrounding wild or the greenspaces and hunt down usually small prey. Like many predators, Rax can go for many days between eating meals. One of their social activities is the process of keeping the urban greenspaces properly stocked with a wide variety of small or medium prey ranging from squirrel-, rat- and dog-analogues, to a very small number of animals up to about the size of deer.

Rax have a high incidence of antisocial mental disabilities, such as sociopathy. This sometimes makes it difficult and uncomfortable for them to interact socially with others of their kind. For such generally antisocial beings, though, Rax are surprisingly xenophilic. Not really full-on xenophilia, but they do tend to be friendly towards other sapient races that they do not find edible. Among their own kind, they tend to interact distantly when necessary to get business done. They often find that gathering a small cadre of alien individuals to deal with their interactions with other Rax serves to greatly lubricate their social interactions. More than any other species in the UNSEO universe, Rax society has come to integrate other species into their own society, in the process making for a much happier, just and unstressful lifestyle. Even humans, who tend to be more out-and-out xenophilic, have not integrated aliens into their society nearly as much as the Rax have.

This is all I have, so far. As I develop the Rax more, I will post notes of those developments.

I hope this was edifying. Thank you for your attention,
The Astrographer

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Races of the UNSEO – Olyuylolly

The Olyuylolly are one of the more technologically-advanced races contacted by the UNSEO. Much of their technology is significantly more advanced than that of Earth.

Physical Attributes and Appearance

Olyuylolly are herbivorous grazers just slightly larger than humans, though not as tall, and have three heads and three legs. The rear leg is considerably longer, heavier and stronger than the other two. Each head has a strong four-segmented beak, usually hidden behind a set of sensitive, raspy lips, a single large eye, a trifurcated nostril, and a single directional ear.

The heads are used to pluck or bite off leaves and fruit from grass-like plants and sometimes thorny bushes. The false-mouth is not actually connected to the digestive system but simply holds food to carry it to the single mouth under the body, which does most of the grinding and moistening of the food before passing it on to three stomachs and a long and extensive set of intestines and out through a pair of orifices flanking the large hind leg, along with the efflux from the three kidneys.

Respiration is one way, driven by the more or less continuous action of strong peristaltic muscles(not sure if this is plausible. don’t want breathing to consume more energy than it provides). When an Olyuylolly exerts itself, it doesn’t breath harder, just faster. The continuous low hiss of their breathing gets louder and higher-pitched the more they exert themselves. Air goes in through the three nostrils, passes over a set of complex chemosensory tissues around the false-mouth and running down the neck. These highly innervated chemosensory structures give the Olyuylolly an excellent sense of taste and discriminatory smell. An important part of the herd life of Olyuylolly is governed by pheromones passing complex messages of dominance, danger, sexual readiness and the simple calming sense of being safe among one’s herd. Although, Olyuylolly are similar to the Vugoa in that pheromonal messages are an important part of their social life, Olyuylolly are much more consciously aware of the smell of those pheromones and have much more conscious control of their own pheromonal emissions. This ability to control pheromonal emissions varies somewhat from one Olyuylolly to the next, but that variance doesn’t correlate to any strong degree with social status.

Olyuylolly are completely incapable of holding their breath, although they can slow the flow of air at will. If an Olyuylolly is exerting itself, it will find it difficult or impossible to slow the flow, autonomic responses take over.

Olyuylolly speech does not involve their mouths. Their noses are involved, but only in so far as they supply the air needed to speak. Once air passes out of the one large lung, it is split through three syringes(plural of syrinx) into a complex labyrinth of resonating chambers and finally out through three sets of spiracles spaced about the body. Each syrinx feeds its own set of spiracles. There are seven spiracles under the body between the front legs, and a set of nine along the top edge of the body on either side between the hind leg and each of the front legs. Olyuylolly have a very wide vocal range, both in terms of frequency and articulation. Their hearing range is similarly broad and discriminatory. Coupled with the fact that Olyuylolly can speak in up to three simultaneous voices, their languages are all completely unpronounceable and largely unintelligible to humans. The Olyuylolly are capable of speaking any language among the worlds known to UNES humanity, except those which go beyond sound. Lacking the chromatophores, which are a vital element of Pfak language or radio-frequency electromagnetic abilities of the Traders, they need technological aid in speaking to some species, but among the more common species who rely on sound for the major part of their communication, they are perfectly capable of speaking any language they learn flawlessly and without accent. The immense intelligence of the Olyuylolly ensure that they can learn any language they have so far encountered.

The brain of an Olyuylolly is very large and as a result, they are very intelligent creatures, usually what humans would consider creative geniuses in some field and generally capable of handling many very complicated issues simultaneously. They are consummate linguists. Driven by a near constant game of one-upmanship among themselves, most Olyuylolly will know at least dozens of languages, and are capable of learning more very quickly. Especially after being embarrassed by an inability to understand a language spoken to them by another. In addition, Olyuylolly are constantly involved in games, mathematical puzzles and other competitive intellectual exercises. Most of them also consider themselves artists of some form or another(usually several). They’re usually, but not always, quite good.

The Olyuylolly are hermaphrodites. When mating, each mate produces one egg, which is inseminated by the other. Each mate will, thus, produce one child. The child regards the parent from which it issued as its mother and the other parent as its father. The father’s child who issued from the mating is considered a twin brother or just a twin. Other children from the same mother with the same father are considered sisters and  children from the same father mating with the mother are considered brothers. Children of the father who aren’t of the mother aren’t considered to be familial relations. A sister’s daughters would be considered nieces. There’s really no traditional sense of a sister’s sons or of a brother’s children as being related, although in some cultures a brother’s niece can be considered a sort of off-niece, but this would be a very informal relationship, with no familial authority. Within these rather altered concepts of gender, family and clan structures can be considered matriarchal and matrilineal.

The Olyuylolly lifespan is incredibly long. Whether this is a natural attribute or the result of life prolongation technology is completely unknown.

Culture and Psychology

The Olyuylolly historically had many separate cultures, presumably with different traditions, but since long before they reached space(a very long time ago, indeed) they have been unified into one all-encompassing culture. Although the old cultures have largely melted into the one over eons, it appears that the Olyuylolly have retained a great number of languages. Linguistic skill is usually a very important part of determining social status within Olyuylolly society. Not only do they retain a dizzying array of languages from their own history, they collect languages from other worlds and frequently create their own personal languages on-the-fly in the continual process of showing their greater abilities to others. Creating a new language is something of a balancing act, as they want it to be complex enough to stump a fair fraction of those around them(or at least delay their understanding), but not so complex that nobody manages to translate it. Frequently, they will create lessons to teach others their language if other Olyuylolly remain stumped. The eidetic memory of Olyuylolly ensures that once the language is learned, others will quickly be able to recognize the fluency of the speaker and understand any jokes or insults that previously have been spoken.

Olyuylolly culture is divided into family, clan, caste, and herd.

Family is the most informal, but also the most traditionally significant relationship among Olyuylolly. Family relations are almost strictly matriarchal and matrilineal and is largely dedicated to the rearing and education of the young. Senior family members, while strictly to be obeyed by children, have no real authority among adult members of the family. Among adults, family is largely considered to be a group of friends and allies, although sometimes enmities are retained from childhood.

Above the family in this hierarchy, lies the clan. Matings are frequently out-clan, thus reducing the significance of fathers and brothers still further. A clan is a formal and fairly permanent association between families. Individuals can change clans, usually to the father’s clan, but that’s a rare and momentous decision, not to be taken lightly.

Authority within the clan is determined democratically by an odd process of election by acclaim known as The Song. Elections are always unanimous, following an often very long period of singing, which is presumably some form of argument. Eventually, a particular melody begins to arise out of the cacophony, and driven perhaps by browbeating, exhaustion, peer-pressure and compelling arguments, becomes unanimous. The process appears very mysterious, even to those taking part, but it is universally stated that everybody is in complete whole-hearted agreement with the conclusion. Positions are held until dissent reaches a level such that The Song sets in again.

The usually more significant social structure in Olyuylolly culture is the caste, a sort of political/professional guild-like structure. Selection of caste is altogether voluntary and taken upon reaching adulthood. Every clan has members in every caste, and every caste has members in every clan.

Authority is determined by the same process of acclaim and election as with clans, only with the members of the caste taking part rather than members of a particular clan. Onset of The Song in either sector seems to destabilize authority, so frequently many castes and clans will go into it at about the same time.

The interplay between caste and clan is believed by the Olyuylolly to help unify the herd as a whole. Which brings us to the highest level of Olyuylolly culture, the herd. At one time, references to,”herd,” might have been seen to mean some structure analogous to nation-states on Earth, but today and for a very long time into the past,”herd,” or,”Herd,” is essentially synonymous with the Olyuylolly species taken as a whole. While caste and clan are considered parallel within Olyuylolly culture, Herd is above all else. Far above.

There is a saying that lying is the Olyuylolly specialty. This is not entirely true. In fact, Olyuylolly rarely lie outright if they can possibly avoid it. Instead, the true Olyuylolly specialty is subtlety and obfuscation of his plans, motivations and knowledge. For an Olyuylolly to lie would be unsubtle. If an Olyuylolly makes a declarative statement every fact he states will very likely be true, however they will be slanted in such a way as to spin the listener towards the speaker’s preferred version of reality and false conclusions about unstated facts. The twin goals of Olyuylolly obfuscation are safety of the herd and utter unpredictability. An Olyuylolly will only tell an outright lie if it believes that the safety of the herd depends on its doing so.

The most important part of the truth will always lie between an Olyuylolly’s words.

Olyuylolly are strongly pacifistic. They will go to great lengths to avoid using violence or having it inflicted upon them. They will, however, when they feel trapped and in fear for their lives or when they consider the herd to be at risk, engage in violence. This is rarely good for their mental health, and they often suffer from serious mental illnesses afterward.

Olyuylolly generally do not like space travel. For some generally mysterious reason, they absolutely detest FTL travel, so only a tiny minority will ever leave their home system. Most will travel in automated starships under suspended animation. Dealing with other, not so pacifistic beings adds to their dislike of interstellar travel.

The most important element of Olyuylolly social life, and life in general, is the herd. Although generally very cautious and timid, an Olyuylolly will definitely sacrifice its life for the survival of the herd. Olyuylolly will not allow anything to stand in the way of the survival of their herd and species, and can be quite ruthless.

Short of violence, ruthlessness is a common behavioral trait among Olyuylolly. Combined with their cautious and incurious nature, ruthless obfuscation has done much to slow scientific and technological development among the Olyuylolly. They are considerably more advanced than UNES humanity, but this is only because they’ve been around a lot longer.

Technology

This is the least-developed part until I’ve determined more about the technology of the UNSEO/UNES. At present, all I can say for sure is that it’s well in advance of the technology of Earth and that particularly advanced areas will be in space propulsion, medicine, nanotech, cerebrocybernetic interfaces(though vanishingly few would agree to having them implanted) and artificial intelligence(though they’re deathly afraid and distrustful of it!).

There’s certainly more to the Olyuylolly than this, but this is what I have so far. Perhaps as I start writing stories about them, more will come to light.

Hopefully reading this was enjoyable. Thank you for reading,
The Astrographer

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Races of the UNSEO – The Vugoa

Zeta-Mtns

The Vugoa really started as an expy for Traveller’s Vargr in my old Solar Union milieu, they’ve changed quite a bit since then. The Vugoa still have a largely canid appearance, and live in a similar ecological niche, but I haven’t decided yet if they are actually derived from Terran canines. Not uplifted in any case, but the World of the UNSEO does contain Echoes of Earth. On the other hand the Vugoa could be no more related to dogs than Aslan or Kzinti are to cats.

The Vugoa inhabit the planet Asdakseghzan, the planet previously partially mapped in Projecting a Map From Imagery: Photoshop and Flexify. I’ll deal with further details of the planet in a future post.

The social aspect of the Vargr was the strongest draw that led to the adoption of the Vugoa into my imaginary universe. I liked the idea of highly social(even, in GURPS terms, Chummy) intelligent people who find it very difficult or even nearly impossible to organize into large social groups. I’ve played around a bit with the notion of Vargr ‘Charisma’ in order both to enhance the alienness of the Vugoa and also to drive the formation of interesting cultures.

Pheromonal signals are universal among the Vugoa. There are essentially four social states among the Vugoa: alpha male, beta male, gamma male and female.

There’s a single alpha male leading each pack. All other males in the pack are betas, who follow the alpha and have essentially equal status(there is a small non-persistent variation based on the current reputation or esteem of each individual and his degree of confidence; even in a particular individual this will vary significantly with time).

The alpha male is the core of the Vugoa pack. The pheromone-driven ‘charisma’ of that alpha male is the cement that brings and holds the little group together. Hormonal changes that take place when a male accepts an alpha as his superior reduce the effectiveness of his own pheromones. This has hampered attempts to create more layered ‘packs of packs’. An alpha ‘baron’ that gives fealty to a higher alpha ‘king’ will find his ability to maintain cohesiveness in the pack will falter. Most likely he will simply become a beta in the pack of such a would-be king and most of his pack would simply wander off as gammas and free females to find or create a new pack.

Males who are not currently part of a pack(adolescents who chose not to join their parent pack and former members of a pack which has broken up) are considered gamma. Gamma males, sometimes referred to, very impolitely, by humans, as “lone wolf” Vugoa are continually in search of a compatible pack. If they fail to find a compatible pack, they will often form a new pack, with an alpha gathering a coterie of gammas with his charisma who will become the betas of the new pack. Even a highly charismatic gamma will only rarely challenge the alpha of an established pack as, in the event of a victory by the gamma, the members of the pack will seldom stay together under the gamma, but most will instead wander off as gammas themselves. A victory over an alpha will, however increase the charisma of the gamma in question, thus increasing his chances of becoming an alpha in a new pack. The most likely situation is that the gamma finds a pack with an alpha more charismatic than himself and joins that pack as a new beta.

Although packs typically disperse if the alpha is defeated or disgraced, packs can survive the death or willing abdication of their alpha. There is usually a transition period, during which the males are considered deltas(a temporary, transitional state, thus not really considered a fifth social status), the males vie among themselves to determine the most charismatic who shall become the new alpha. Thus have some packs persisted for many lifetimes. This is also one of the very rare opportunities for an outsider gamma to become the alpha of an established pack.

The female is generally something of a free agent within the pack structure. Females have far more traditional and legalistic social hierarchies. Females also tend to gather in larger, more geographically-structured social constructs. Females are also only loosely bound into the pack to which they ostensibly “belong”. Frequently, when the alpha male of a pack decides to move on to a different location, while the beta males will follow along, the females will frequently disperse to other packs in the area rather than leave.

Due in part to anatomical differences, males and females inhabit different, but parallel cultural models. While Vugoa females are receptive to pheromonal signals, and in fact produce pheromones of their own to communicate mood, sexual receptivity and the like, pheromones confer no persistent hierarchical status to individual females. The social order among females is both more fluid and more legalistic than among males. While females retain a sense of identity with their pack and its alpha male, they are much more capable of forming bonds with other females outside their pack. As the male order very much travels with the pack and its alpha male, the female order is far more territorial. This has proven significant in forming larger social conglomerations among the Vugoa.

Another structure that has been significant in the formation of larger social structures in Vugoa culture, is the pair bonding. Alpha males never pair bond, instead forming loose, temporary relationships with a small harem of typically young females who are generally considered as the pack’s females. Although formally the members of this harem are considered to be the alpha’s mates, they are, outside of the alpha’s immediate attention, available to any beta male of the pack who is not otherwise pair bonded. Older or more successful betas will eventually become pair bonded with one member of the harem, effectively removing that female from the alpha’s harem  and creating an exclusive mating relationship between the beta male and the female in question. If the pack’s alpha chooses to migrate and the pair bonded female refuses to follow, the beta male must stay with the female and become a gamma until or unless he can find a new pack in the area. This creates one of the strongest bonds between male and female Vugoa society as pair bonded males must stay under local female laws and alphas of older, well-established packs risk losing a significant part of their beta following if they choose to relocate, perhaps in protest to dictates of the local female legal structure.

The packlord structure in Vugoa society is based on a voluntary and conditional cooperation between multiple packs. “Packlord” is the term for an alpha male in this structure. Although packs are only weakly bound to a geographical area, the loose packlord confederacies are almost always geographically contiguous. Otherwise, packlord confederacies are very fluid geographically. Individual packs will frequently leave confederacies to join neighboring ones they find more conducive to their short-term interests or migrate to more hospitable realms. Such confederacies can often be found intertwined with more geographically-oriented polities. Areas considered to be ruled by ‘packlord governments’ are usually possessed of a highly fractious or tribalized female hierarchy. In these cases, even the female culture is nomadic in nature. Typically, this is found in marginal environments such as heavy jungles, high mountains or arid regions or in areas with primitive hunter-gatherer economies.

The monarchies of Asdakseghzan are exclusively led by one or more queens, no kings. The parallel female social structure has driven the creation of most large-scale political structures among the Vugoa, particularly the monarchies. In addition to packlord confederacies and monarchies, some areas of Asdakseghzan are under the control of city-states or even a few republics. Among geographical hierarchies, republics have the most male integration. While alpha males are loathe to subordinate themselves to the rule of a majority, fewer still would willingly abdicate voting power to other males. Thus male participation in republican governance is fairly common. This is unusual, as for the most part, unless faced with some kind of Lysistrata Gambit, most alpha males treat the feminine geographic states as little more than a formality.

The Vugoa, with their footloose males structured into small mobile pack groups and settled females structured into larger geographical societies, present an interesting challenge to the development and maintenance of persistently organized civilizations. The existence and success of such civilizations on Asdakseghzan is a tribute to the resourcefulness and intelligence of these canid alien beings.

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Pixar’s 22 Rules for Storytelling

A very helpful bit of writing advice from the people at Pixar. Enjoy.pixar22rulesNow it’s time for me to apply Rule 11. See you soon!

The Astrographer

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Protected: WIP: Ytosh Outline

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A Little Eye Candy

Ladies and Gentlemen, for your viewing pleasure, Winchell Chung’s DY-100 orbiting a class-M planet. Maybe it’s a museum piece.

Clearly, I still need to work on the lighting. And that LunarCell planet? Meh…

Clearly, I still need to work on the lighting. And that LunarCell planet? Meh…

Thank you for your attention,
The Astrographer

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Links I Almost Lost

Firefox and I recently had a run-in with a hard drive error. It turned out to be repairable and I recovered all my tabs and bookmarks, but I figured I’d post some of them here, because they have been beddy-beddy good to me.

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Hermes, Titan and Horizon Launch Vehicles

 

An oblique perspective view of the full Horizon 41 stack.

An oblique perspective view of the full Horizon 41 stack.

In the same alternative sixties that produced the Soviet KT-1 Moon Rocket, the United States had it’s own efforts at heavy lift. Some of the information, specifically span, will have to remain indeterminate until I get them modelled in Blender. Have to make it look “good” after all.

Goddard Hermes

The first is the 196-inch Goddard Spacerocket Corporation Hermes LV.

Hermes First Stage

Diameter: 4.978m
Span: ?
Length: 12.700m(14.830m including engines)
Dry mass: 8,923kg
Propellant mass: 199,439kg
Thrust: 3,790.80kN(vacuum) 4 x H-1
Isp: 289s(vac)
Total mass: 208,362kg

Hermes Interstage

Diameter: 4.978m
Length: 1.829m
Dry mass: 2,000kg
Protects the RL-10 engines on the second stage.

Hermes Second Stage

Diameter: 4.978m(9.347m including engines)
Length: 7.620m
Dry mass: 4,775kg
Propellant mass: 38,324kg
Thrust: 266.80kN(vacuum) 4 x RL-10A-1
Isp: 425s(vac)
Total mass: 43,099kg

Capabilities

185x185km, 28.5º         8,486kg
480x480km, 50º            7,492kg
185x35785km, 28.5º     1,990kg
185x35785km, 0º            689kg
185x ∞ km, C3=0            713kg

Douglas Titan

My next model is the bigger and newer 232-inch Douglas Space Systems Titan LV. No relation to any OTL rocket with a similar name.

Titan First Stage

Diameter: 5.893m
Span: ?
Length: 20.320m
Dry mass: 32,776kg
Propellant mass: 447,704kg
Thrust: 9,422.95kN(vacuum) 5 x E-1
Isp: 290s(vac)
Total mass: 480,480kg

Titan Interstage

Diameter: 5.893m
Length:
Dry mass: 2,000kg
Protects the J-2 engine on the second stage.

Titan Second Stage

Diameter: 5.893m
Length: 12.090m
Dry mass: 9,207kg
Propellant mass: 90,161kg
Thrust: 1,033.1kN(vacuum) 1 x J-2
Isp: 421s(vac)
Total mass: 99,368kg

Phoenix Adapter

Diameter: 5.893m
Length: 0.9650m
Dry mass: 2,500kg
Only used with the Phoenix manned capsule.

Capabilities(without Phoenix adapter)

185x185km, 28.5º           22,124kg
480x480km, 50º            19,721kg
185x35785km, 28.5º      6,528kg
185x35785km, 0º            3,451kg
185x ∞ km, C3=0            3,508kg
185x ∞ km, C3=15           1,376kg

Capabilities(with Phoenix adapter)

185x185km, 28.5º           19,623kg
480x480km, 50º             17,219kg

This one is clearly our American Proton.

USSF Horizon

Horizon_Right_OrthoA genuine Von Braunian Frankenrocket using pieces from the Douglas Titan and the Goddard Hermes to genuinely create “Cluster’s Last Stand.” Developed to loft the heavy Looking Glass spy satellite. Later made (in)famous by the McKinley Rocket Base incident.

Consists of Titan First Stage core with a cluster of two or four Hermes First Stage boosters. The Second Stage is a Titan Second Stage and it’s Third Stage is a Hermes Second Stage.

Capabilities(0 boosters + upper stage)Horizon 1

185x185km, 28.5º           25,340kg
480x480km, 50º            23,111kg
185x35785km, 28.5º      10,855kg
185x35785km, 0º             7,934kg
185x ∞ km, C3=0              7,983kg
185x ∞ km, C3=15            5,947kg

Capabilities(2 boosters, no upper stage)Horizon 20

185x185km, 28.5º           37,229kg
480x480km, 50º            33,599kg
185x35785km, 28.5º      13,949kg
185x35785km, 0º            9,424kg
185x ∞ km, C3=0             9,506kg
185x ∞ km, C3=15           6,388kg

Capabilities(4 boosters, no upper stage)Horizon 40

185x185km, 28.5º           49,524kg
480x480km, 50º            44,794kg
185x35785km, 28.5º      19,661kg
185x35785km, 0º            13,949kg
185x ∞ km, C3=0             14,053kg
185x ∞ km, C3=15           10,144kg

Capabilities(2 boosters + upper stage)Horizon 21

185x185km, 28.5º           39,038kg
480x480km, 50º            35,768kg
185x35785km, 28.5º      17,993kg
185x35785km, 0º            13,753kg
185x ∞ km, C3=0             13,819kg
185x ∞ km, C3=15           10,858kg

Capabilities(4 boosters + upper stage)Horizon 41Horizon_Top_Ortho

185x185km, 28.5º           50,516kg
480x480km, 50º            46,342kg
185x35785km, 28.5º      23,983kg
185x35785km, 0º            18,647kg
185x ∞ km, C3=0             18,724kg
185x ∞ km, C3=15           14,985kg

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